History Podcasts

Atlantis as Ireland - The Emerald Enigma

Atlantis as Ireland - The Emerald Enigma

Could the answer to one of the world’s greatest mysteries have been under our noses all this time?

The legendary lost island of Atlantis. Everyone’s heard of it and everyone’s got an opinion.

Was it just an elaborate fiction given to us by the Greek philosopher Plato in 360 BC? Or was it a ‘mother culture’ - a real place with an advanced Stone Age civilization?

The answer is both.

Plato’s legend is clearly exaggerated. It contains many historical errors and combines two places into one tale, yet at its core there is a grain of truth. After all, the legend of Atlantis had already been passed down by word of mouth for thousands of years before Plato himself first heard it, so it’s hardly surprising that some details got distorted over time.

Truth became history, history became legend, and legend became myth. But almost 12,000 years later the grain of truth survives.

Atlantis: Three Key Factors

When you strip back the Atlantis legend to its very core, there are three key factors:

  • The legend originated in Egypt
  • Atlantis was an island in the Atlantic Ocean
  • The Atlantians were an advanced Stone Age seafaring people, a ‘mother culture’

Name a place on Earth from Antarctica to Africa, Sweden to South America, and someone will have claimed it was Atlantis.

Scientists roll their eyes whenever a new Atlantis theory emerges because the three key factors—the Egyptian connection, the Atlantic location, and the advanced Stone Age civilization—are the first casualties of the next fanciful claim. It seems that every time someone finds so much as a brick underwater, they claim they have found Atlantis.

Scientists rightly demand proof. Surely if such a mother culture existed, a civilization which predated the Greeks and the Egyptians, then there must be some physical evidence.

Academics claim Atlantis was a fable, yet this doesn't stand up to scrutiny. Ancient Egyptian texts describe how their ancestors came from a sacred island in the Atlantic Ocean that was devastated in a great flood.

Others claim that Atlantis sunk to the bottom of the ocean, eliminating all evidence. However, geologists who have mapped the entire Atlantic seabed are adamant that this there is simply no room for a lost sunken island. They insist that it’s not scientifically possible and that any claims of a large, sunken island lack credibility.

Therefore, if the Atlantis mother culture ever did exist, there must still be evidence above ground, not just wild speculation.

So how do we solve this riddle?

By bypassing Plato’s tale altogether and going right to the source: Ancient Egypt .

The Surprising Location of Atlantis

Ancient Egyptian texts describe how Egypt’s ancestors came from a sacred island in the Atlantic Ocean that was devastated in a great flood.

Sound familiar? That’s what the team from Keystone University thought.

In the largest investigation ever conducted into the legend of Atlantis, Keystone’s research team used cutting-edge techniques from multiple disciplines and reviewed thousands of ancient texts, including rare manuscripts from Egypt, Greece, and Ireland.

As a result, they have compiled over 1,000 pieces of evidence to support a surprising, yet oh-so-obvious location for the lost island of Atlantis.

Ireland.

A 17th century artwork of Olof Rudbeck dissecting the world and revealing the “secret location” of Atlantis. He is surrounded by well-known figures of antiquity such as Plato, Aristotle, and Homer.

This is not the first time that Ireland has been cited as Atlantis. In 2004, Dr. Ulf Erlingsson, a renowned, prizewinning Swedish scientist, published the book ‘ Atlantis from a Geographer’s Perspective’ and a scientific paper which both claimed that Ireland was the legendary lost island. Furthermore, he claimed that the physical description and measurements of Plato’s Atlantis perfectly matched Ireland.

His claims exposed him to the scorn and ridicule of his peers, who informed him that writing seriously about Atlantis was tantamount to professional suicide for an academic. Yet he went ahead anyway. When interviewed he said, “Sometimes a scientist has to do what a scientist has to do.”

The Keystone team agree with Erlingsson’s findings. In addition, their research includes many additional pieces of evidence that simply weren’t available to Erlingsson when he wrote his book 16 years ago.

It’s a well-known historical fact that the Egyptian civilization predated the Greeks by thousands of years.

It’s also well-known that Ireland’s Stone Age constructions were built long before the Egyptian pyramids and temples.

A virtually unknown, yet well-evidenced theory is that the builders of Newgrange, Ireland’s spectacular Stone Age temple, used boats to transport dozens of huge boulders to the site from Clogherhead, which is over 30 km (18.64 miles) away. Some of these boulders weighed as much as 10 tons. Imagine the quality of boat and level of skill required to load and unload such huge weights, let alone transport them. Stone Age quays & boats found near Newgrange are estimated to be at least 5,000 years old, making them older than the pyramids.

Newgrange, Boyne Valley, Ireland. ( Yggdrasill /Adobe Stock)

Newgrange is also perfectly aligned to the rising sun at the winter solstice, as are hundreds of Irish megaliths, which demonstrates a stunning level of astronomical, mathematical and construction knowledge obtained by the early Irish.

We know for sure that the Stone Age Irish were master astronomers. We know for sure they were master builders. We know for sure that the Irish had boats. It’s not much of a stretch to imagine the wandering Irish sailing from their Atlantic island home to explore the wider world.

The Atlantic Location

The most telling characteristic of Atlantis is that it was an island located in the Atlantic Ocean. Obviously, Ireland is an island in the Atlantic with an ancient people, language, and culture. There are an estimated 100,000 Stone Age constructions remaining in Ireland - including the most spectacular megaliths on Earth - as you would expect if they really were an advanced early civilization. Similar constructions (mounds, cairns, stone circles, dolmens, passage tombs, etc.) are found all over the world, proving that the entire world, not just Ireland, has a stunning and forgotten ancient history.

Some claim that Atlantis lies at the bottom of the ocean. However, science has eliminated this as a possibility and an island in the Atlantic that does exist is a much more viable explanation than an island that doesn’t.

There are many descriptions of Plato’s Atlantis that perfectly fit Ireland, while there are also many that don’t. It’s clear that Plato’s legend is useful but unreliable, that it combined two separate related places, a lot of exaggeration, and several historical errors.

Plato’s Atlantis was an island in the Atlantic with a fertile, circular plain which was surrounded by mountains that descended towards the sea. Ireland is the only island on Earth with these features.

The hiking trail at the top of Diamond Hill in Connemara National Park, Ireland. ( Louis-Michel DESERT /Adobe Stock)

Plato’s Atlantis had a temperate climate capable of producing two crops per year. Ireland has one of the most temperate climates on Earth and to this day it is capable of producing two crops a year: winter and spring barley. Meanwhile, Ireland’s Ceide fields are the oldest agricultural fields on Earth.

Plato’s Atlantis had many hot and cold springs. Ireland has 27 warm springs and thousands of cold ones, known locally as holy wells .

Plato’s tale also described the city of Atlantis, a huge circular city with an abundance of elephants, gold, and ivory. This is actually a reference to the ancient city of Cerne, an early Irish settlement in Mauritania, Africa. Cerne is derived from the Irish word cairn, which means stacked or piled rocks. Cairns are also heavily associated with the Greek messenger god Hermes and his Egyptian equivalent Thoth. The site of the City of Cerne, Plato’s lost city of Atlantis, is also known as the Eye of the Sahara or the Richat structure.

The Richat Structure from Landsat satellite. Elements of this image furnished by NASA. ( voran /Adobe Stock)

Interestingly, in Greek history the name Cerne actually referred to two separate places: an African city near the Atlas mountains and an island in the Atlantic Ocean that was 12 days’ sail from the Strait of Gibraltar. Similarly, Plato’s Atlantis was a combination of the same two separate places: the island of Atlantis (Ireland) and the City of Atlantis (City of Cerne/the Eye of the Sahara, Mauritania). In Greek mythology Atlas was the first king of two separate places: the Island of Atlantis and the kingdom of Mauritania, Africa. The Atlas Mountains, which encircle the Eye of the Sahara, still bear his name.

The Greek Diodorus, in his ‘Library of History’, describes how the Atlantians were a civilized people who had a settlement called Cerne near the Atlas mountains and that it was here that the warlike Amazons, a ferocious army of female warriors from Libya, slaughtered the Atlantians before attacking Greece and waging war in the region. Greek history is very consistent in supporting the account of Diodorus, but not that of Plato, that it was actually the Amazons who attacked Greece, not the Atlantians.

‘Departure of the Amazons’ (1620s) by Claude Deruet. ( CC0)

The old Irish annals contain many records of voyages to Greece, Mauritania, and Egypt. The female Amazon warriors are also mentioned, as is an attempted invasion of Ireland by the Greeks and Romans, who were defeated at the Battle of Ventry in County Kerry. Perhaps it’s here, on Ireland’s wild Atlantic shore, that Rome’s famous missing Ninth Legion met their demise.

Plato described how Atlantis was ‘swallowed by the sea’. This is reference to a huge tsunami which decimated Stone Age Ireland. Virtually every culture on Earth has an origin story involving a great deluge. What is unique about the Irish is they have several records of life before, during, and after this great flood.

The ancient Irish annals even contain the names of the flood survivors who managed to escape by boat or survived by reaching higher ground. On Ireland’s western coast there are folk tales of a giant tsunami around 12,000 years ago. Similar tales are found in Iona, Scotland.

So what could have caused this global apocalyptic event?

While a localized tsunami affecting Ireland could easily have been caused by an ocean earthquake, there is only one thing which could cause a huge global event: a cosmic impact .

  • The Legend of Atlantis: Between Ancient Ruins and a Philosopher’s Tale
  • Hy-Brasil: The Legendary Phantom Island of Ireland
  • Orcadian Genesis: The Origins of the Orkney Isles’ Unique Megalithic Culture and its Roots in Britain’s Own Lost Atlantis – Part One

The Keystone team speculate that a comet struck the Atlantic Ocean at the Puerto Rico Trench, triggering a huge tsunami, epic global rainfalls, flooding, ocean volcanoes, and earthquakes. Gravitational anomalies often signal a cosmic impact, and the most negative gravitational anomaly on Earth is situated deep in the Puerto Rico Trench. NASA scientists report that beneath the trench there is a mass so dense that its gravitational pull causes the ocean to dip and it affects navigational instruments.

The Puerto Rico Trench is located in the infamous Bermuda Triangle and is the deepest point in the entire Atlantic Ocean. The Keystone team suggest that this anomaly is the result of a comet strike around 11,600 years ago. This date perfectly matches the end of the Younger Dryas period, a time of extreme flooding and rising sea levels which oceanographers and geologists call Meltwater Pulse 1B and there is evidence for a huge tsunami that impacted the Caribbean sea during this period.

The Keystone team suggest that there was a comet strike around 11,600 years ago. ( Aliaksandr Marko /Adobe Stock)

In short, there is scientific evidence for a cataclysmic event at a time in history when many independent cultures around the world speak of a global flood.

It is also the exact same time Atlantis is said to have drowned.

Read Part II Here: Ireland as Atlantis - Insight from the Egyptians and Greeks

For more information, visit www.keystone.ie

The brand new book which gives full details and the supporting evidence on these proposals, ‘Atlantis Ireland’ by Anthony Woods and Keystone University is now available from Amazon.


The Mystery of the Emerald Tablet

Throughout human history there have been those mysterious books, artifacts and relics said to hold some sort of vast powers or mystical knowledge. History is steeped in such tales, and there have been many who have spent their whole lives trying to find these lost artifacts. One such item that has managed to elude clear understanding is an ancient text etched upon stone, which would go on to become one of the most influential manuscripts on the practice of alchemy and a basis for much occult knowledge, but which remains buried in the mists of time. It is an item of alleged great power, holding secrets of magic, alchemy, the human mind, and possibly even the universe itself.

One of the cornerstones of early alchemy was a mysterious tablet said to contain a vast trove of secrets of magic and the universe and which would go on to become one of the most revered and sought after pieces of magical documentation in all of Western Occultism. Referred to variously as the Smaragdine Table, Tabula Smaragdina, or more commonly simply the Emerald Tablet, this elusive object is said to be one or even a series of rectangular green plaques, onto which are etched various symbols and inscriptions that spell out all manner of magical knowledge, in particular having to do with alchemy and the transmutation of matter from one form to another, as well as the method for creating the legendary Philosopher’s Stone and for manipulating the very matter of the universe itself. It is even said to hold the secrets to transforming one’s own consciousness and attaining a sort of enhanced conscious state and enlightenment.
While the appearance and the secrets contained within are mostly agreed upon, the tablet has a murky history wreathed in the unknown, which has obfuscated its true origins and author. The most commonly cited version has it that the tablet was originally written by the father of Hermetic magic and alchemy himself, the legendary 5th century philosopher and priest Hermes Trismegistus, back in ancient Greece. Hermes supposedly wrote the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism, and the Emerald Tablet is said to have been his masterpiece. Other myriad theories include that the tablet was written by the son of the biblical Adam and Eve, Seth, that it was discovered clutched in the priest’s dead hands in a tomb under the statue of Hermes in Tyan in the 8th century by an Arabic mage named Balinas, that it was unearthed by Alexander that Great in an Egyptian tomb, or even that it was created by Thoth, the king priest of Atlantis a full 38,000 years ago.

Whatever the case may be, legends flock to and surround the tablet and where it went off to. One common tale is that it was buried under the Pyramids in Egypt, while others claim it was sequestered away within the Ark of the Covenant or that is was returned to the buried ruins of Atlantis. With so many legends and myths spiraling about the Emerald Tablet, it is hard to say who wrote it or when, or where it is now. What is known is that it was first translated into Latin by Hugo von Santalla in the 12th century, and that at least in this version Hermes Trismegistus is credited as the author. It is also known that the alleged writings upon it were highly influential in alchemy at the time, and this makes it all the more curious that no evidence of the actual physical existence of the lost tablet has ever been uncovered. We only know of it from written accounts and various translations, and some of these were from highly influential people, including Roger Bacon, Michael Maier, Aleister Crowley, Albertus Magnus, Eric John Holmyard, Julius Ruska, and Carl Jung, who claimed to have been visited by the tablet in his dreams.

A reconstruction of what the Emerald Tablet might look like.

None of these translations is exactly the same and may or may not be based on what was actually written on the physical tablet, and further complicating matters is the fact that interpretations of what is written vary from writer to writer. Perhaps the most well-known and intriguing of the various translations and commentaries on the Emerald Tablet was penned by none other than the English scientist, mathematician, astronomer, theologian, and philosopher Sir Isaac Newton, who actually wrote a surprising amount of work on the subject of alchemy. Newton allegedly spent much time working with the text of the tablet, and managed to produce one of the more famous translated sections, which reads:Tis true without lying, certain and most true.That which is below is like that which is above and that which is above is like that which is below to do the miracles of one only thingAnd as all things have been and arose from one by the mediation of one: so all things have their birth from this one thing by adaptation.The Sun is its father, the moon its mother, the wind hath carried it in its belly, the earth is its nurse.The father of all perfection in the whole world is here.Its force or power is entire if it be converted into earth.Separate thou the earth from the fire, the subtle from the gross sweetly with great industry.It ascends from the earth to the heaven and again it descends to the earth and receives the force of things superior and inferior.By this means you shall have the glory of the whole world and thereby all obscurity shall fly from you.Its force is above all force. For it vanquished every subtle thing and penetrates every solid thing.So was the world created.
From this are and do come admirable adaptations whereof the means (or process) is here in this. Hence I am called Hermes Trismegist, having the three parts of the philosophy of the whole worldThat which I have said of the operation of the Sun is accomplished and ended.The meaning seems very open to interpretation, but Newton purportedly was very impressed by the knowledge and processes written of on the tablet, and it has been postulated that it could have even had an influence on his theories of the laws of motion and universal gravitation. He is also said to have believed that the tablet contained the literal recipe for creating the legendary Philosopher’s Stone, and that if one could comprehend the text and its intricate, arcane messages and geometrical patterns then they would acquire the ability to fashion the stone. Newton was by many accounts actually quite obsessed with the Philosopher’s Stone, writing much about it, and he believed the Emerald Tablet was the key. He also supposedly found within the text all manner of alchemical secrets, which he believed to be not merely symbolic, but that these were literal processes that could be carried out and performed in a laboratory setting. He would write of the tablet:I am a skeptic by nature but I have no alternative than to offer subjective support to the claim that the Emerald Tablet has transformative properties. There are other things besides the transmutation of metals which none but they understand.
Isaac NewtonDid Newton gain any secrets from the tablet and did it indeed influence his work? No one really knows. It is all very intriguing, but in the end there is no certainty that any of those who have translated the tablet ever even saw the actual tablet themselves. It seems more likely that they worked with alleged transcripts of the original tablet, and that there is a very good chance that much of the information was changed or corrupted over time and through subsequent translations throughout history. There is also the possibility that this seemingly almost mythical tablet may have never even existed at all, that this is all merely a legend that has taken on a life of its own. Considering all of the conflicting and often confusing information on the Emerald Tablet, as well as the uncertainty over who actually supposedly wrote it or where it came from, we are left with very little that is concrete, and cannot adequately unravel the myth from any possible reality.We are in the end left with many questions and few answers. Was there ever this mystical Emerald tablet upon which were emblazoned profound secrets of the universe? How did this come to be such a foundation for alchemy throughout history? Who wrote this and where did it go to? What exactly did it contain, and was it literal methods of alchemy and magic or merely symbolic? Did any of it actually work and if so, how? Did the tablet ever even exist at all? The possible answers to this historical enigma are varied, but we will likely not know until that mysterious green tablet is finally found, buried out there somewhere and lost to time. One of the cornerstones of early alchemy was a mysterious tablet said to contain a vast trove of secrets of magic and the universe and which would go on to become one of the most revered and sought after pieces of magical documentation in all of Western Occultism. Referred to variously as the Smaragdine Table, Tabula Smaragdina, or more commonly simply the Emerald Tablet, this elusive object is said to be one or even a series of rectangular green plaques, onto which are etched various symbols and inscriptions that spell out all manner of magical knowledge, in particular having to do with alchemy and the transmutation of matter from one form to another, as well as the method for creating the legendary Philosopher’s Stone and for manipulating the very matter of the universe itself. It is even said to hold the secrets to transforming one’s own consciousness and attaining a sort of enhanced conscious state and enlightenment.
While the appearance and the secrets contained within are mostly agreed upon, the tablet has a murky history wreathed in the unknown, which has obfuscated its true origins and author. The most commonly cited version has it that the tablet was originally written by the father of Hermetic magic and alchemy himself, the legendary 5th century philosopher and priest Hermes Trismegistus, back in ancient Greece. Hermes supposedly wrote the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism, and the Emerald Tablet is said to have been his masterpiece. Other myriad theories include that the tablet was written by the son of the biblical Adam and Eve, Seth, that it was discovered clutched in the priest’s dead hands in a tomb under the statue of Hermes in Tyan in the 8th century by an Arabic mage named Balinas, that it was unearthed by Alexander that Great in an Egyptian tomb, or even that it was created by Thoth, the king priest of Atlantis a full 38,000 years ago.

Whatever the case may be, legends flock to and surround the tablet and where it went off to. One common tale is that it was buried under the Pyramids in Egypt, while others claim it was sequestered away within the Ark of the Covenant or that is was returned to the buried ruins of Atlantis. With so many legends and myths spiraling about the Emerald Tablet, it is hard to say who wrote it or when, or where it is now. What is known is that it was first translated into Latin by Hugo von Santalla in the 12th century, and that at least in this version Hermes Trismegistus is credited as the author. It is also known that the alleged writings upon it were highly influential in alchemy at the time, and this makes it all the more curious that no evidence of the actual physical existence of the lost tablet has ever been uncovered. We only know of it from written accounts and various translations, and some of these were from highly influential people, including Roger Bacon, Michael Maier, Aleister Crowley, Albertus Magnus, Eric John Holmyard, Julius Ruska, and Carl Jung, who claimed to have been visited by the tablet in his dreams.

A reconstruction of what the Emerald Tablet might look like.

None of these translations is exactly the same and may or may not be based on what was actually written on the physical tablet, and further complicating matters is the fact that interpretations of what is written vary from writer to writer. Perhaps the most well-known and intriguing of the various translations and commentaries on the Emerald Tablet was penned by none other than the English scientist, mathematician, astronomer, theologian, and philosopher Sir Isaac Newton, who actually wrote a surprising amount of work on the subject of alchemy. Newton allegedly spent much time working with the text of the tablet, and managed to produce one of the more famous translated sections, which reads:Tis true without lying, certain and most true.That which is below is like that which is above and that which is above is like that which is below to do the miracles of one only thingAnd as all things have been and arose from one by the mediation of one: so all things have their birth from this one thing by adaptation.The Sun is its father, the moon its mother, the wind hath carried it in its belly, the earth is its nurse.The father of all perfection in the whole world is here.Its force or power is entire if it be converted into earth.Separate thou the earth from the fire, the subtle from the gross sweetly with great industry.It ascends from the earth to the heaven and again it descends to the earth and receives the force of things superior and inferior.By this means you shall have the glory of the whole world and thereby all obscurity shall fly from you.Its force is above all force. For it vanquished every subtle thing and penetrates every solid thing.So was the world created.
From this are and do come admirable adaptations whereof the means (or process) is here in this. Hence I am called Hermes Trismegist, having the three parts of the philosophy of the whole worldThat which I have said of the operation of the Sun is accomplished and ended.The meaning seems very open to interpretation, but Newton purportedly was very impressed by the knowledge and processes written of on the tablet, and it has been postulated that it could have even had an influence on his theories of the laws of motion and universal gravitation. He is also said to have believed that the tablet contained the literal recipe for creating the legendary Philosopher’s Stone, and that if one could comprehend the text and its intricate, arcane messages and geometrical patterns then they would acquire the ability to fashion the stone. Newton was by many accounts actually quite obsessed with the Philosopher’s Stone, writing much about it, and he believed the Emerald Tablet was the key. He also supposedly found within the text all manner of alchemical secrets, which he believed to be not merely symbolic, but that these were literal processes that could be carried out and performed in a laboratory setting. He would write of the tablet:I am a skeptic by nature but I have no alternative than to offer subjective support to the claim that the Emerald Tablet has transformative properties. There are other things besides the transmutation of metals which none but they understand.
Isaac NewtonDid Newton gain any secrets from the tablet and did it indeed influence his work? No one really knows. It is all very intriguing, but in the end there is no certainty that any of those who have translated the tablet ever even saw the actual tablet themselves. It seems more likely that they worked with alleged transcripts of the original tablet, and that there is a very good chance that much of the information was changed or corrupted over time and through subsequent translations throughout history. There is also the possibility that this seemingly almost mythical tablet may have never even existed at all, that this is all merely a legend that has taken on a life of its own. Considering all of the conflicting and often confusing information on the Emerald Tablet, as well as the uncertainty over who actually supposedly wrote it or where it came from, we are left with very little that is concrete, and cannot adequately unravel the myth from any possible reality.We are in the end left with many questions and few answers. Was there ever this mystical Emerald tablet upon which were emblazoned profound secrets of the universe? How did this come to be such a foundation for alchemy throughout history? Who wrote this and where did it go to? What exactly did it contain, and was it literal methods of alchemy and magic or merely symbolic? Did any of it actually work and if so, how? Did the tablet ever even exist at all? The possible answers to this historical enigma are varied, but we will likely not know until that mysterious green tablet is finally found, buried out there somewhere and lost to time. None of these translations is exactly the same and may or may not be based on what was actually written on the physical tablet, and further complicating matters is the fact that interpretations of what is written vary from writer to writer. Perhaps the most well-known and intriguing of the various translations and commentaries on the Emerald Tablet was penned by none other than the English scientist, mathematician, astronomer, theologian, and philosopher Sir Isaac Newton, who actually wrote a surprising amount of work on the subject of alchemy. Newton allegedly spent much time working with the text of the tablet, and managed to produce one of the more famous translated sections, which reads:Tis true without lying, certain and most true.That which is below is like that which is above and that which is above is like that which is below to do the miracles of one only thingAnd as all things have been and arose from one by the mediation of one: so all things have their birth from this one thing by adaptation.The Sun is its father, the moon its mother, the wind hath carried it in its belly, the earth is its nurse.The father of all perfection in the whole world is here.Its force or power is entire if it be converted into earth.Separate thou the earth from the fire, the subtle from the gross sweetly with great industry.It ascends from the earth to the heaven and again it descends to the earth and receives the force of things superior and inferior.By this means you shall have the glory of the whole world and thereby all obscurity shall fly from you.Its force is above all force. For it vanquished every subtle thing and penetrates every solid thing.So was the world created.
From this are and do come admirable adaptations whereof the means (or process) is here in this. Hence I am called Hermes Trismegist, having the three parts of the philosophy of the whole worldThat which I have said of the operation of the Sun is accomplished and ended.The meaning seems very open to interpretation, but Newton purportedly was very impressed by the knowledge and processes written of on the tablet, and it has been postulated that it could have even had an influence on his theories of the laws of motion and universal gravitation. He is also said to have believed that the tablet contained the literal recipe for creating the legendary Philosopher’s Stone, and that if one could comprehend the text and its intricate, arcane messages and geometrical patterns then they would acquire the ability to fashion the stone. Newton was by many accounts actually quite obsessed with the Philosopher’s Stone, writing much about it, and he believed the Emerald Tablet was the key. He also supposedly found within the text all manner of alchemical secrets, which he believed to be not merely symbolic, but that these were literal processes that could be carried out and performed in a laboratory setting. He would write of the tablet:I am a skeptic by nature but I have no alternative than to offer subjective support to the claim that the Emerald Tablet has transformative properties. There are other things besides the transmutation of metals which none but they understand.
Isaac NewtonDid Newton gain any secrets from the tablet and did it indeed influence his work? No one really knows. It is all very intriguing, but in the end there is no certainty that any of those who have translated the tablet ever even saw the actual tablet themselves. It seems more likely that they worked with alleged transcripts of the original tablet, and that there is a very good chance that much of the information was changed or corrupted over time and through subsequent translations throughout history. There is also the possibility that this seemingly almost mythical tablet may have never even existed at all, that this is all merely a legend that has taken on a life of its own. Considering all of the conflicting and often confusing information on the Emerald Tablet, as well as the uncertainty over who actually supposedly wrote it or where it came from, we are left with very little that is concrete, and cannot adequately unravel the myth from any possible reality.We are in the end left with many questions and few answers. Was there ever this mystical Emerald tablet upon which were emblazoned profound secrets of the universe? How did this come to be such a foundation for alchemy throughout history? Who wrote this and where did it go to? What exactly did it contain, and was it literal methods of alchemy and magic or merely symbolic? Did any of it actually work and if so, how? Did the tablet ever even exist at all? The possible answers to this historical enigma are varied, but we will likely not know until that mysterious green tablet is finally found, buried out there somewhere and lost to time.

Contents

The Old Irish word tuath (plural tuatha) means "people, tribe, nation" is the genitive case of día and, depending on context, can mean "god, gods, goddess" or more broadly "supernatural being, object of worship". [14] In the earliest writings, the mythical race are referred to as the Tuath Dé (plural Tuatha Dé). [1] However, Irish monks also began using the term Tuath Dé to refer to the Israelites, [1] with the meaning "People of God". [15] Apparently to avoid confusion with the Israelites, [1] writers began to refer to the mythical race as the Tuath Dé Danann (plural Tuatha Dé Danann). [16] The Old Irish pronunciation is [t̪uaθa d̪ʲeː d̪anan̪] and the Modern Irish pronunciation is [t̪ˠuə(hi) dʲeː d̪ˠan̪ˠən̪ˠ] in the West and North, and [t̪ˠuəhə dʲeː d̪ˠan̪ˠən̪ˠ] in the South. In Latin they are referred to as the Plebes Deorum or "folk of gods." [17] A poem included in the Lebór Gábala Érenn also refers to the Tuath Dé as the clann Eladan. [18]

Danann is generally believed to be the genitive of a female name, for which the nominative case is not attested. It has been reconstructed as Danu, of which Anu (genitive Anann) may be an alternative form. [1] Anu is called "mother of the Irish gods" by Cormac mac Cuilennáin. [1] This may be linked to the Welsh mythical figure Dôn. [1] Hindu mythology also has a goddess called Danu, who may be an Indo-European parallel. However, this reconstruction is not universally accepted. [19] It has also been suggested that Danann is a conflation of dán ("skill, craft") and the goddess name Anann. [1] The name is also found as Donann and Domnann, [20] which may point to the origin being proto-Celtic *don, meaning "earth" [1] (compare the Old Irish word for earth, doman). There may be a link with the mythical Fir Domnann [21] and the British Dumnonii. [22]

The Tuatha Dé Danann were descended from Nemed, leader of a previous wave of inhabitants of Ireland. They came from four cities to the north of Ireland—Falias, Gorias, Murias and Finias—where they taught their skills in the sciences, including architecture, the arts, and magic, including necromancy. [23] [24] According to Lebor Gabála Érenn, they came to Ireland "in dark clouds" and "landed on the mountains of [the] Conmaicne Rein in Connachta", otherwise Sliabh an Iarainn, "and they brought a darkness over the sun for three days and three nights". They immediately burnt the ships "so that they should not think of retreating to them, and the smoke and the mist that came from the vessels filled the neighbouring land and air. Therefore it was conceived that they had arrived in clouds of mist".

A poem in the Lebor Gabála Érenn says of their arrival:

It is God who suffered them, though He restrained them
they landed with horror, with lofty deed,
in their cloud of mighty combat of spectres,
upon a mountain of Conmaicne of Connacht.

Without distinction to discerning Ireland,
Without ships, a ruthless course
the truth was not known beneath the sky of stars,
whether they were of heaven or of earth.

From them are the Tuatha Dé and Andé, whose origin the learned do not know, but that it seems likely to them that they came from heaven, on account of their intelligence and for the excellence of their knowledge. [25]

Led by king Nuada, they fought the First Battle of Magh Tuireadh on the west coast, in which they defeated and displaced the native Fir Bolg, who then inhabited Ireland. In the battle, Nuada lost an arm to their champion, Sreng. Since Nuada was no longer "unblemished", he could not continue as king and was replaced by the half-Fomorian Bres, who turned out to be a tyrant. The physician Dian Cecht replaced Nuada's arm with a working silver one and he was reinstated as king. However, Dian Cecht's son Miach was dissatisfied with the replacement so he recited the spell, "ault fri halt dí & féith fri féth" (joint to joint of it and sinew to sinew), which caused flesh to grow over the silver prosthesis over the course of nine days and nights. [26] [27] However, in a fit of jealous rage Dian Cecht slew his own son. Because of Nuada's restoration as the leader, Bres complained to his family and his father, Elatha, who sent him to seek assistance from Balor, king of the Fomorians.

The Tuatha Dé Danann then fought the Second Battle of Magh Tuireadh against the Fomorians. Nuada was killed by the Fomorian king Balor's poisonous eye, but Balor was killed by Lugh, champion of the Tuatha Dé, and who then took over as king.

A third battle was fought against a subsequent wave of invaders, the Milesians, from the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (present-day Galicia and Northern Portugal), descendants of Míl Espáine (who are thought to represent the Goidelic Celts). The Milesians encountered three Tuatha Dé Danann goddesses, Ériu, Banba and Fodla, who asked that the island be named after them Ériu is the origin of the modern name Éire, and Banba and Fodla are still sometimes used as poetic names for Ireland.

Their three husbands, Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine, were kings of the Tuatha Dé Danann at that time, and asked for a truce of three days, during which the Milesians would lie at anchor nine waves' distance from the shore. The Milesians complied, but the Tuatha Dé Danann created a magical storm in an attempt to drive them away. The Milesian poet Amergin calmed the sea with his verse, then his people landed and defeated the Tuatha Dé Danann at Tailtiu. When Amergin was called upon to divide the land between the Tuatha Dé Danann and his own people, he cleverly allotted the portion above ground to the Milesians and the portion underground to the Tuatha Dé Danann. The Tuatha Dé Danann were led underground into the Sidhe mounds by Manannán mac Lir and Tir na nOg onto a flowery plain/plain of honey attested to in the Voyage of Bran.

Preceded by
Fir Bolg
Mythical invasions of Ireland
AFM 1897 BC
FFE 1477 BC
Succeeded by
Milesians

The Tuatha Dé Danann brought four magical treasures with them to Ireland, one apiece from their Four Cities: [28]

The following is a chronology from the Annals of the Four Masters based on reign-lengths given in Geoffrey Keating's Forus Feasa ar Erinn. Nuada's original reign lacks a precise start date.

    (first reign) AFM unknown-1897 BC FFE unknown-1477 BC AFM 1897-1890 BC FFE 1477-1470 BC (final reign) AFM 1890-1870 BC FFE 1470-1447 BC AFM 1870-1830 BC FFE 1447-1407 BC AFM 1830-1750 BC FFE 1407-1337 BC AFM 1750-1740 BC FFE 1337-1327 BC AFM 1740-1730 BC FFE 1327-1317 BC , Mac Cecht and Mac GréineAFM 1730-1700 BC FFE 1317-1287 BC

In the Irish version of the Historia Britonum of Nennius, the chief men of science of the Tuatha Dé Danann are listed with their partly Latin names and associations as follows: [17]

    , artifex ("artisan") , figulus ("shaper/builder") , medicus ("doctor")
  • Eadon, daughter of Dianus and nurse of the poets - presumably Étaín, Brigid, or Airmed , faber ("smith/architect") , son of Eithne, with whom were all the arts the Great, the King , brother of the King, from whom came the letters of the Scots

In the Annals of Inisfallen, the following are listed as members of the Tuatha Dé who overcame the Fir Bolg: [29]


Community Reviews

Space Drifters is a light-hearted fun space opera. It focuses on the exploits of a small crew as they seek a powerful object known as the Emerald Enigma.

The story is populated with colourful characters. Captain Starcrost is your underdog starship captain. He&aposs a little goofy and would be lost without the wisdom of his companions, but he will always demonstrate bravery when it counts. He reminds me a little of Roger Wilco from the Space Quest games.

Blix is very cool. He strikes me a little as an Space Drifters is a light-hearted fun space opera. It focuses on the exploits of a small crew as they seek a powerful object known as the Emerald Enigma.

The story is populated with colourful characters. Captain Starcrost is your underdog starship captain. He's a little goofy and would be lost without the wisdom of his companions, but he will always demonstrate bravery when it counts. He reminds me a little of Roger Wilco from the Space Quest games.

Blix is very cool. He strikes me a little as an English butler with reptilian scales. His species can dream things into existence, leading to lots of fun and hijinks.

Nelvan - the time travelling young man from the past serves as the anchor to help ease us into the story world. He is a compassionate character.

Jasette brings a welcome female perspective, as well as a great air of mystery. She is a tough-girl bounty hunter . or is she?

Hamilton is the smooth villain you love to hate.

I enjoyed Starcrost's quest for the emerald enigma. The story comes to a satisfying conclusion, but also leads directly into sequel territory. I'm looking forward to the next one.
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I&aposm not even sure what to rate this book. It&aposs. odd. At times, it&aposs a parody (the main character and his first officer are so obviously Captain Kirk and Spock wannabees. And the moment when the lost space princess steps out in buns on the side of her head and a white dress. ). At other times, it is just plain laughing at itself and the whole space opera genre. The whole book takes places over three or four days. The main character spends half of that roaming the galaxy in his red-checked pajam I'm not even sure what to rate this book. It's. odd. At times, it's a parody (the main character and his first officer are so obviously Captain Kirk and Spock wannabees. And the moment when the lost space princess steps out in buns on the side of her head and a white dress. ). At other times, it is just plain laughing at itself and the whole space opera genre. The whole book takes places over three or four days. The main character spends half of that roaming the galaxy in his red-checked pajama pants. Barely anything in the book is taken seriously. Between the random time traveler, a reptilian pacifist, and evil space monkeys, you're never quite sure what is going to pop up next. It's certainly a whirlwind adventure, that's for sure.

That's all my favorite parts. I wasn't too connected with the characters at times and sometimes the books blistering pace meant that I wasn't always sure what was going on and I had to go back to re-read the last page to figure out what minute transition I might've missed.

While published by Enclave, a Christian publisher, the Christianity part of this book is very light, which fits the overall tone of the book. I don't think too much overt Christianity would've worked with the whole space opera parody thing that was going on. . more

Tired of dystopian wastelands, hordes of zombies, or universe-spanning epics? Then this book is the book for you! A barrel full of monke— , I mean, fun! The author gives service to the standard sci-fi character tropes (stalwart captain, conflicted alien, naive wanderer, and space princess), yet puts a unique satirical spin on them all. The dialog is great, and there are enough twists to keep you moving through the pages. I laughed out loud on more than one occasion.

If I had any criticisms, they Tired of dystopian wastelands, hordes of zombies, or universe-spanning epics? Then this book is the book for you! A barrel full of monke— , I mean, fun! The author gives service to the standard sci-fi character tropes (stalwart captain, conflicted alien, naive wanderer, and space princess), yet puts a unique satirical spin on them all. The dialog is great, and there are enough twists to keep you moving through the pages. I laughed out loud on more than one occasion.

If I had any criticisms, they would be the rare astronomical quibble (. like one spot where a galaxy has only three suns? Star system instead, maybe? Not sure. ) and dialog where I could’ve used a few more setting tiedowns. But, that’s little stuff that only someone like me would notice.

All in all, a great first novel. Really enjoyed it. I look forward to more from Mr. Regnier!
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It&aposs more than a science fiction story. It&aposs more than a space rambling. It&aposs both of those combined and thrown into a spiraling universe of misfortunes, a maybe romance, miscalculations, and sheer luck, or maybe fate, that carries the reader along on one heck of a space adventure complete with the occasional comedy.

Glint Starcrost is the captain of an alien first mate, a teenage time traveler, and a royal bloodline bounty hunter. He&aposs forced to deal not only with his own personal issues involvi It's more than a science fiction story. It's more than a space rambling. It's both of those combined and thrown into a spiraling universe of misfortunes, a maybe romance, miscalculations, and sheer luck, or maybe fate, that carries the reader along on one heck of a space adventure complete with the occasional comedy.

Glint Starcrost is the captain of an alien first mate, a teenage time traveler, and a royal bloodline bounty hunter. He's forced to deal not only with his own personal issues involving the almost highjacking of his ship by a lovely beauty that muddles his thoughts, but a testy and jealous ship computer, plus a first mate that refuses to fight, an out of his element teen, and his own desires between treasures and survival.

He hides his true character behind a false bravado of quick wit and outlandish maneuvers. When his "dreams can come true, literally" first mate encounters the Holy Bible, it sets off a whirlwind of events that never stop. Soon he will question his desires and wishes as he searches for the Emerald Enigma that will grant every wish.

This is a fast paced novel that will leave you breathless and sometimes chuckling. Glint is a mixture of Starlord (in bravado and character), Han Solo (especially with his princess quips), Arthur Dent (from the misfortunes that he didn't ask for), and a little of Captain Kirk (with his quick thinking), and yet this character is all his own. Blix, his faithful friend, epitomizes the calm, unruffled, and sometimes aggressive first officer: think Groot/Chewbacca/Ford/Spock rolled into a man with lizard characteristics. Jasette is more than royalty. She's smart, fast, vicious, and quite loyal after a fashion. Nelvan is the catalyst that starts the space adventure moving forward.

The symbolic undertone brings to the reader the biblical teaching about greed and wants, of love and sacrifice, and in what/who to place one's hope.

Although the book ended on a cliffhanger, I look forward to see how Glint and crew escape this next bout of the Enigma's charm/curse. And I can say, even with his red plaid "jammy" pants, Glint Starcrost is a swoon worthy hero in my book. . more

Paul Regnier is a native Southern Californian like me, and his appreciation and enthusiasm for Science Fiction was not lost on me. There are several obvious references to Star Wars, and I found the crew to closely resemble the mishmash of the crew from the Guardians of the Galaxy franchise. I loved the characters. They will win you over right away. Even though Captain Starcrost (the protagonist) wears the same pants as Hans Solo, he most reminds me of Malcom Reynolds from the Firefly franchise. Paul Regnier is a native Southern Californian like me, and his appreciation and enthusiasm for Science Fiction was not lost on me. There are several obvious references to Star Wars, and I found the crew to closely resemble the mishmash of the crew from the Guardians of the Galaxy franchise. I loved the characters. They will win you over right away. Even though Captain Starcrost (the protagonist) wears the same pants as Hans Solo, he most reminds me of Malcom Reynolds from the Firefly franchise. His tough exterior seems a bit irritating at first, but once he meets Jasette, the bounty hunter with an unexpected past, we finally get a glimpse of his softer side.
If you are a true sci-fi fan, you will appreciate the detail that Regnier put into “The Emerald Enigma.” There were scenes that reminded me of ‘Lost in Space,’ but there were also plenty of new and unexplored ideas, one being a ship computer that has an actual personality. It was basically like reading a mashup of all my favorite kinds of sci-fi. Well done, Reignier. There wasn’t anything inappropriate in this book, in case you are wondering. And for me, the most refreshing thing about the entire book was Blix, whose voice automatically sounded like Abe Sapien in my head from the first moment I read his dialogue.
As far as spiritual content, it is very subtle. One of the main characters is a Christian and has a Bible. He shares his faith with the other characters. There are a few mentions of prayer.
The only disappointing aspect was that this book doesn’t have a concrete ending, since it is the first in a series. It definitely leaves you wanting more.

I was given a free copy of this book so that I could review it for you. . more

Space Drifters went above and beyond my expectations. As a fan of witty humor and original characters, I can’t recommend this one enough. Captain Starcrost, the main character, isn’t all too happy with his life as a star pilot, which isn’t anything like the brochure promised. Instead of tumbling from one adventure into the other, he’s broke, his star freighter needs repairs and there’s a bounty on his head. In what is Book Review originally published here: http://www.iheartreading.net/book-tou.

Space Drifters went above and beyond my expectations. As a fan of witty humor and original characters, I can’t recommend this one enough. Captain Starcrost, the main character, isn’t all too happy with his life as a star pilot, which isn’t anything like the brochure promised. Instead of tumbling from one adventure into the other, he’s broke, his star freighter needs repairs and there’s a bounty on his head. In what is typical behavior for Starcrost, he decides the solution to all his prolems is to go on a quest to find a fabled treasure called the Emerald Enigma.

Along with his teams, he goes on the adventure of a lifetime, but unfortunately his nemesis, Hamilton Von Drone, is after the treasure too. He’s already had a run-in with Starcrost once, and now Hamilton will stop at nothing to hurt Starcrost’s chances of retrieving the Emerald Enigma first.

The best part about this book was, no doubt, the crew members. Iris is a passive-agressive ship computer with mood swings, Blix is a lizard who doesn’t want to fight and instead prefers to read books, Nevlan is a time-traveling teen from the past and Jasette is a bounty hunter and a mystery wrapped in one. With a crew like that, things can’t go wrong.

The book was fast-paced and thrilling, and at times, hilarous. The writing is solid and the author sketches the characters well. An entertaining and enjoyable space opera / science-fiction novel. If you like your scifi mixed with humor, I highly recommend this book. . more

Captain Glint Starcrost doesn&apost have to look for trouble, it seems to find him quite easily. All he wants to do is look for the legendary Emerald Enigma. But for some reason he has a staggering bounty on his head, which brings all sorts of interesting people into his life. First, there&aposs bounty hunter Jasette. Of course it isn&apost Glint&aposs fault that she then in turn gets captured by his academy rival along with him, his first mate Blix, and the kid who randomly appeared after a time travel inciden Captain Glint Starcrost doesn't have to look for trouble, it seems to find him quite easily. All he wants to do is look for the legendary Emerald Enigma. But for some reason he has a staggering bounty on his head, which brings all sorts of interesting people into his life. First, there's bounty hunter Jasette. Of course it isn't Glint's fault that she then in turn gets captured by his academy rival along with him, his first mate Blix, and the kid who randomly appeared after a time travel incident, Nelvan. From there it is out of the frying pan and into the fire for the thrown together crew as they try to escape one bad situation after another.

This is a lighthearted space romp. It feels like a mix of old classic Star Trek and Guardians of the Galaxy, in a large part due to Glint coming off as a mix of Captain Kirk and Star Lord. He thinks he's way more macho than he is, random events don't seem to phase him too much, and you get the feeling that Blix and others merely let him think he's in control out of kindness for his ego. Blix is a lizard-like alien who is portrayed as super tough and wise, and is currently on a pacifist kick which bothers Glint to no end when his preference is to shoot his way out of sticky situations. Jasette is the super capable and intimidating bounty hunter with a big secret, and responds to Glint mostly with the eye rolls he deserves. Nelvan is from a time much closer to our own, so he's constantly in awe of the technology (and gives Regnier plenty of opportunities to explain the current universe and tech in a natural way without obvious info dumping). He is also more innocent and honest (and has the ability to automatically spot lies), but you get the feeling that he's also way smarter than Glint gives him credit for. The plot is a bit random but in the best possible way. (It feels a bit like an ode to Douglas Addams in that aspect.) The end is a bit of a cliffhanger so I'm glad I have book two already. If you like your space adventures all serious, don't touch this. If you are looking for a lighthearted read and enjoy the Guardians of the Galaxy movies, you'd probably enjoy this. It was humorous though not often worthy of audible laughter, just some inner chuckles. I would've read this much faster if not for the craziness of real life while reading it.

Notes on content: No language issues. No sexual content beyond one kiss. Some fist fights and space battles and some people and space monkeys have bad encounters with lava. Nothing gory. . more


Atlantis as Ireland - The Emerald Enigma - History

WHAT proofs have we that the Egyptians were a colony from Atlantis?

1. They claimed descent from "the twelve great gods," which must have meant the twelve gods of Atlantis, to wit, Poseidon and Cleito and their ten sons.

2. According to the traditions of the Phœnicians, the Egyptians derived their civilization from them and as the Egyptians far antedated the rise of the Phœnician nations proper, this must have meant that Egypt derived its civilization from the same country to which the Phœnicians owed their own origin. The Phœnician legends show that Misor, from whom, the Egyptians were descended, was the child of the Phœnician gods Amynus and Magus. Misor gave birth to Taaut, the god of letters, the inventor of the alphabet, and Taaut became Thoth, the god of history of the Egyptians. Sanchoniathon tells us that "Chronos (king of Atlantis) visited the South, and gave all Egypt to the god Taaut, that it might be his kingdom." "Misor" is probably the king "Mestor" named by Plato.

3. According to the Bible, the Egyptians were descendants of Ham, who was one of the three sons of Noah who escaped from the Deluge, to wit, the destruction of Atlantis.

4. The great similarity between the Egyptian civilization and that of the American nations.

5. The fact that the Egyptians claimed to be red men.

6. The religion of Egypt was pre-eminently sun-worship, and Ra was the sun-god of Egypt, Rama, the sun of the Hindoos,

[paragraph continues] Rana, a god of the Toltecs, Raymi, the great festival of the sun of the Peruvians, and Rayam, a god of Yemen.

7. The presence of pyramids in Egypt and America.

8. The Egyptians were the only people of antiquity who were well-informed as to the history of Atlantis. The Egyptians were never a maritime people, and the Atlanteans must have brought that knowledge to them. They were not likely to send ships to Atlantis.

9. We find another proof of the descent of the Egyptians from Atlantis in their belief as to the "under-world." This land of the dead was situated in the West--hence the tombs were all placed, whenever possible, on the west bank of the Nile. The constant cry of the mourners as the funeral procession moved forward was, "To the west to the west." This under-world was beyond the water, hence the funeral procession always crossed a body of water. "Where the tombs were, as in most cases, on the west bank of the Nile, the Nile was crossed where they were on the eastern shore the procession passed over a sacred lake." (R. S. Poole, Contemporary Review, August, 1881, p. 17.) In the procession was "a sacred ark of the sun."

All this is very plain: the under-world in the West, the land of the dead, was Atlantis, the drowned world, the world beneath the horizon, beneath the sea, to which the peasants of Brittany looked from Cape Raz, the most western cape projecting into the Atlantic. It was only to be reached from Egypt by crossing the water, and it was associated with the ark, the emblem of Atlantis in all lands.

The soul of the dead man was supposed to journey to the under-world by "a water progress" (Ibid., p. 18), his destination was the Elysian Fields, where mighty corn grew, and where he was expected to cultivate the earth "this task was of supreme importance." (Ibid., p. 19.) The Elysian Fields were the "Elysion" of the Greeks, the abode of the blessed, which we have seen was an island in the remote west." The Egyptian

belief referred to a real country they described its cities, mountains, and rivers one of the latter was called Uranes, a name which reminds us of the Atlantean god Uranos. In connection with all this we must not forget that Plato described Atlantis as "that sacred island lying beneath the sun." Everywhere in the ancient world we find the minds of men looking to the west for the land of the dead. Poole says, "How then can we account for this strong conviction? Surely it must be a survival of an ancient belief which flowed in the very veins of the race." (Contemporary Review, 1881, p. 19.) It was based on an universal tradition that under "an immense ocean," in "the far west," there was an "under-world," a world comprising millions of the dead, a mighty race, that had been suddenly swallowed up in the greatest catastrophe known to man since he had inhabited the globe.

10. There is no evidence that the civilization of Egypt was developed in Egypt itself it must have been transported there from some other country. To use the words of a recent writer in Blackwood,

"Till lately it was believed that the use of the papyrus for writing was introduced about the time of Alexander the Great then Lepsius found the hieroglyphic sign of the papyrus-roll on monuments of the twelfth dynasty afterward be found the same sign on monuments of the fourth dynasty, which is getting back pretty close to Menes, the protomonarch and, indeed, little doubt is entertained that the art of writing on papyrus was understood as early as the days of Menes himself. The fruits of investigation in this, as m many other subjects, are truly most marvellous. Instead of exhibiting the rise and progress of any branches of knowledge, they tend to prove that nothing had any rise or progress, but that everything is referable to the very earliest dates. The experience of the Egyptologist must teach him to reverse the observation of Topsy, and to '`spect that nothing growed,' but that as soon as men were planted on the banks of the Nile they were already the cleverest men that ever lived, endowed with more knowledge and more power than their successors for centuries and centuries could

attain to. Their system of writing, also, is found to have been complete from the very first. . . .

"But what are we to think when the antiquary, grubbing in the dust and silt of five thousand years ago to discover some traces of infant effort--some rude specimens of the ages of Magog and Mizraim, in which we may admire the germ that has since developed into a wonderful art--breaks his shins against an article so perfect that it equals if it does not excel the supreme stretch of modern ability? How shall we support the theory if it come to our knowledge that, before Noah was cold in his grave, his descendants were adepts in construction and in the fine arts, and that their achievements were for magnitude such as, if we possess the requisite skill, we never attempt to emulate? . . .

"As we have not yet discovered any trace of the rude, savage Egypt, but have seen her in her very earliest manifestations already skilful, erudite, and strong, it is impossible to determine the order of her inventions. Light may yet be thrown upon her rise and progress, but our deepest researches have hitherto shown her to us as only the mother of a most accomplished race. How they came by their knowledge is matter for speculation that they possessed it is matter of fact. We never find them without the ability to organize labor, or shrinking from the very boldest efforts in digging canals and irrigating, in quarrying rock, in building, and in sculpture."

The explanation is simple: the waters of the Atlantic now flow over the country where all this magnificence and power were developed by slow stages from the rude beginnings of barbarism.

And how mighty must have been the parent nation of which this Egypt was a colony!

Egypt was the magnificent, the golden bridge, ten thousand years long, glorious with temples and pyramids, illuminated and illustrated by the most complete and continuous records of human history, along which the civilization of Atlantis, in a great procession of kings and priests, philosophers and astronomers, artists and artisans, streamed forward to Greece, to Rome, to Europe, to America. As far back in the ages as the

eye can penetrate, even where the perspective dwindles almost to a point, we can still see the swarming multitudes, possessed of all the arts of the highest civilization, pressing forward from out that other and greater empire of which even this wonderworking Nile-land is but a faint and imperfect copy.

Look at the record of Egyptian greatness as preserved in her works: The pyramids, still in their ruins, are the marvel of mankind. The river Nile was diverted from its course by monstrous embankments to make a place for the city of Memphis. The artificial lake of Mœris was created as a reservoir for the waters of the Nile: it was four hundred and fifty miles in circumference and three hundred and fifty feet deep, with subterranean channels, flood-gates, locks, and dams, by which the wilderness was redeemed from sterility. Look at the magnificent mason-work of this ancient people! Mr. Kenrick, speaking of the casing of the Great Pyramid, says, "The joints are scarcely perceptible, and not wider than the thickness of silver-paper, and the cement so tenacious that fragments of the casing-stones still remain in their original position, notwithstanding the lapse of so many centuries, and the violence by which they were detached." Look at the ruins of the Labyrinth, which aroused the astonishment of Herodotus it had three thousand chambers, half of them above ground and half below--a combination of courts, chambers, colonnades, statues, and pyramids. Look at the Temple of Karnac, covering a square each side of which is eighteen hundred feet. Says a recent writer, "Travellers one and all appear to have been unable to find words to express the feelings with which these sublime remains inspired them. They have been astounded and overcome by the magnificence and the prodigality of workmanship here to be admired. Courts, halls, gate-ways, pillars, obelisks, monolithic figures, sculptures, rows of sphinxes, are massed in such profusion that the sight is too much for modern comprehension." Denon says, "It is hardly possible to believe, after having seen it, in the reality of the existence of so many buildings

collected on a single point--in their dimensions, in the resolute perseverance which their construction required, and in the incalculable expense of so much magnificence." And again, "It is necessary that the reader should fancy what is before him to be a dream, as he who views the objects themselves occasionally yields to the doubt whether he be perfectly awake." There were lakes and mountains within the periphery of the sanctuary. "The cathedral of Notre Dame at Paris could be set inside one of the halls of Karnac, and not touch the walls! . . . The whole valley and delta of the Nile, from the Catacombs to the sea, was covered with temples, palaces, tombs, pyramids, and pillars." Every stone was covered with inscriptions.

The state of society in the early days of Egypt approximated very closely to our modern civilization. Religion consisted in the worship of one God and the practice of virtue forty-two commandments prescribed the duties of men to themselves, their neighbors, their country, and the Deity a heaven awaited the good and a hell the vicious there was a judgment-day when the hearts of men were weighed:

"He is sifting out the hearts of men
Before his judgment-seat."

Monogamy was the strict rule not even the kings, in the early days, were allowed to have more than one wife. The wife's rights of separate property and her dower were protected by law she was "the lady of the house" she could "buy, sell, and trade on her own account" in case of divorce her dowry was to be repaid to her, with interest at a high rate. The marriage-ceremony embraced an oath not to contract any other matrimonial alliance. The wife's status was as high in the earliest days of Egypt as it is now in the most civilized nations of Europe or America.

Slavery was permitted, but the slaves were treated with the greatest humanity. In the confessions, buried with the dead,

the soul is made to declare that "I have not incriminated the slave to his master," There was also a clause in the commandments "which protected the laboring man against the exaction of more than his day's labor." They were merciful to the captives made in war no picture represents torture inflicted upon them while the representation of a sea-fight shows them saving their drowning enemies. Reginald Stuart Poole says (Contemporary Review, August, 1881, p. 43):

"When we consider the high ideal of the Egyptians, as proved by their portrayals of a just life, the principles they laid down as the basis of ethics, the elevation of women among them, their humanity in war, we must admit that their moral place ranks very high among the nations of antiquity.

"The true comparison of Egyptian life is with that of modern nations. This is far too difficult a task to be here undertaken. Enough has been said, however, to show that we need not think that in all respects they were far behind us."

Then look at the proficiency in art of this ancient people.

They were the first mathematicians of the Old World. Those Greeks whom we regard as the fathers of mathematics were simply pupils of Egypt. They were the first land-surveyors. They were the first astronomers, calculating eclipses, and watching the periods of planets and constellations. They knew the rotundity of the earth, which it was supposed Columbus had discovered!

"The signs of the zodiac were certainly in use among the Egyptians 1722 years before Christ. One of the learned men of our day, who for fifty years labored to decipher the hieroglyphics of the ancients, found upon a mummy-case in the British Museum a delineation of the signs of the zodiac, and the position of the planets the date to which they pointed was the autumnal equinox of the year 1722 B.C. Professor Mitchell, to whom the fact was communicated, employed his assistants to ascertain the exact position of the heavenly bodies belonging to our solar system on the equinox of that year. This was done, and a diagram furnished by parties ignorant of his object, which showed that on the 7th of October, 1722 B.C.

the moon and planets occupied the exact point in the heavens marked upon the coffin in the British Museum." (Goodrich's "Columbus," p. 22.)

They had clocks and dials for measuring time. They possessed gold and silver money. They were the first agriculturists of the Old World, raising all the cereals, cattle, horses, sheep, etc. They manufactured linen of so fine a quality that in the days of King Amasis (600 years B.C.) a single thread of a garment was composed of three hundred and sixty-five minor threads. They worked in gold, silver, copper, bronze, and iron they tempered iron to the hardness of steel. They were the first chemists. The word "chemistry" comes from chemi, and chemi means Egypt. They manufactured glass and all kinds of pottery they made boats out of earthenware and, precisely as we are now making railroad car-wheels of paper, they manufactured vessels of paper. Their dentists filled teeth with gold their farmers hatched poultry by artificial beat. They were the first musicians they possessed guitars, single and double pipes, cymbals, drums, lyres, harps, flutes, the sambric, ashur, etc. they had even castanets, such as are now used in Spain. In medicine and surgery they had reached such a degree of perfection that several hundred years B.C. the operation for the removal of cataract from the eye was performed among them one of the most delicate and difficult feats of surgery, only attempted by us in the most recent times. "The papyrus of Berlin" states that it was discovered, rolled up in a case, under the feet of an Anubis in the town of Sekhem, in the days of Tet (or Thoth), after whose death it was transmitted to King Sent, and was then restored to the feet of the statue. King Sent belonged to the second dynasty, which flourished 4751 B.C., and the papyrus was old in his day. This papyrus is a medical treatise there are in it no incantations or charms but it deals in reasonable remedies, draughts, unguents and injections. The later medical papyri contain a great deal of magic and incantations.

"Great and splendid as are the things which we know about oldest Egypt, she is made a thousand times more sublime by our uncertainty as to the limits of her accomplishments. She presents not a great, definite idea, which, though hard to receive, is, when once acquired, comprehensible and clear. Under the soil of the modern country are hid away thousands and thousands of relics which may astonish the world for ages to come, and change continually its conception of what Egypt was. The effect of research seems to be to prove the objects of it to be much older than we thought them to be--some things thought to be wholly modern having been proved to be repetitions of things Egyptian, and other things known to have been Egyptian being by every advance in knowledge carried back more and more toward the very beginning of things. She shakes our most rooted ideas concerning the world's history she has not ceased to be a puzzle and a lure: there is a spell over her still."

Renan says, "It has no archaic epoch." Osborn says, "It bursts upon us at once in the flower of its highest perfection." Seiss says ("A, Miracle in Stone," p. 40), "It suddenly takes its place in the world in all its matchless magnificence, without father, without mother, and as clean apart from all evolution as if it had dropped from the unknown heavens." It had dropped from Atlantis.

Rawlinson says ("Origin of Nations," p. 13):

"Now, in Egypt, it is notorious that there is no indication of any early period of savagery or barbarism. All the authorities agree that, however far back we go, we find in Egypt no rude or uncivilized time out of which civilization is developed. Menes, the first king, changes the course of the Nile, makes a great reservoir, and builds the temple of Phthah at Memphis. . . . We see no barbarous customs, not even the habit, so slowly abandoned by all people, of wearing arms when not on military service."

Tylor says (" Anthropology," p. 192):

"Among the ancient cultured nations of Egypt and Assyria handicrafts had already come to a stage which could only have

been reached by thousands of years of progress. In museums still may be examined the work of their joiners, stone-cutters, goldsmiths, wonderful in skill and finish, and in putting to shame the modern artificer. . . . To see gold jewellery of the highest order, the student should examine that of the ancients, such as the Egyptian, Greek, and Etruscan."

The carpenters' and masons' tools of the ancient Egyptians were almost identical with those used among us to-day.

There is a plate showing an Aztec priestess in Delafield's "Antiquities of America," p. 61, which presents a head-dress strikingly Egyptian. In the celebrated "tablet of the cross," at Palenque, we see a cross with a bird perched upon it, to which (or to the cross) two priests are offering sacrifice. In Mr. Stephens's representation from the Vocal Memnon we find almost the same thing, the difference being that, instead of an ornamented Latin cross, we have a crux commissa, and instead of one bird there are two, not on the cross, but immediately above it. In both cases the hieroglyphics, though the characters are of course different, are disposed upon the stone in much the same manner. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 61.)

Even the obelisks of Egypt have their counterpart in America.

Quoting from Molina ("History of Chili," tom. i., p. 169), McCullough writes, "Between the hills of Mendoza and La Punta is a pillar of stone one hundred and fifty feet high, and twelve feet in diameter." ("Researches," pp. 171, 172.) The columns of Copan stand detached and solitary, so do the obelisks of Egypt both are square or four-sided, and covered with sculpture. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 60.)

In a letter by Jomard, quoted by Delafield, we read,

"I have recognized in your memoir on the division of time among the Mexican nations, compared with those of Asia, some very striking analogies between the Toltec characters and institutions observed on the banks of the Nile. Among these

analogies there is one which is worthy of attention--it is the use of the vague year of three hundred and sixty-five days, composed of equal months, and of five complementary days, equally employed at Thebes and Mexico--a distance of three thousand leagues. . . . In reality, the intercalation of the Mexicans being thirteen days on each cycle of fifty-two years, comes to the same thing as that of the Julian calendar, which is one day in four years and consequently supposes the duration of the year to be three hundred and sixty-five days six hours. Now such was the length of the year among the Egyptians--they intercalated an entire year of three hundred and seventy-five days every one thousand four hundred and sixty years. . The fact of the intercalation (by the Mexicans) of thirteen days every cycle that is, the use of a year of three hundred and sixty-five days and a quarter--is a proof that it was borrowed from the Egyptians, or that they had a common origin." ("Antiquities of America," pp. 52, 53.)

The Mexican century began on the 26th of February, and the 26th of February was celebrated from the time of Nabonassor, 747 B.C., because the Egyptian priests, conformably to their astronomical observations, had fixed the beginning of the month Toth, and the commencement of their year, at noon on that day. The five intercalated days to make up the three hundred and sixty-five days were called by the Mexicans Nemontemi, or useless, and on them they transacted no business while the Egyptians, during that epoch, celebrated the festival of the birth of their gods, as attested by Plutarch and others.

It will be conceded that a considerable degree of astronomical knowledge must have been necessary to reach the conclusion that the true year consisted of three hundred and sixty-five days and six hours (modern science has demonstrated that it consists of three hundred and sixty-five days and five hours, less ten seconds) and a high degree of civilization was requisite to insist that the year must be brought around, by the intercalation of a certain number of days in a certain period of time, to its true relation to the seasons. Both were the outgrowth of a vast, ancient civilization of the highest order,

which transmitted some part of its astronomical knowledge to its colonies through their respective priesthoods.

Can we, in the presence of such facts, doubt the statements of the Egyptian priests to Solon, as to the glory and greatness of Atlantis, its monuments, its sculpture, its laws, its religion, its civilization?

In Egypt we have the oldest of the Old World children of Atlantis in her magnificence we have a testimony to the development attained by the parent country by that country whose kings were the gods of succeeding nations, and whose kingdom extended to the uttermost ends of the earth.

The Egyptian historian, Manetho, referred to a period of thirteen thousand nine hundred years as "the reign of the gods," and placed this period at the very beginning of Egyptian history. These thirteen thousand nine hundred years were probably a recollection of Atlantis. Such a lapse of time, vast as it may appear, is but as a day compared with some of our recognized geological epochs.


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Isaac Newton’s Interpretation

An unexpected translator of the tablet was Sir Isaac Newton, who also bore a fiery passion for the more occult things aside from science. The translated text was found among several other of his works in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, and science.

From the pieces that he translated, one particular section stood out: “Three is the great mystery, come from the great one.” Many interpreted this as a meaning that the number three is one of those cosmic truths that people claim the Emerald Tablet possesses.

Newton’s translation is fostered at King’s College Library from Cambridge University. You can find an extract of the translation below.


Here are some of the myths and facts about the lost city of Atlantis.

1. What is the legend of Atlantis?

The legend of the lost city of Atlantis is one of the most popular and interesting legends of the sea. Atlantis is a possibly fictional island that was initially mentioned in the works of Plato, a Greek philosopher. Plato was known to talk truth about human conditions at his time. All of his works were real and practical. It is due to this reason that some people believe the legend of the lost city of Atlantis to be true even 2,300 years after his death.

The story of Atlantis was first told around 360 B.C. It was described as a utopian civilization that was created by half God and half-humans. Atlantis was a great naval power. It was made of concentric islands which were separated by moats. They were linked together by a canal that stretched to the center. The islands of Atlantis contained a lot of gold, silver, and other precious metals. It was also home to rare wildlife. The capital city lied in the center of the island.

According to the legend, the city of Atlantis sank into the sea as it was hit by a giant earthquake, volcano, or tsunami. Plato stated that Atlantis existed around 9000 years before he was born and that the story had been passed down for generations. However, the only sources of information about Atlantis available today are Plato’s writings.

2. Location: Where is it situated?

The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has been known for centuries. It is believed that the city of Atlantis sank into the sea as a result of a huge earthquake or tsunami. We know about the glory and the lavishness of the city. What is still unknown to us is where exactly this legendary city was or is situated.

Many theories have been put forward about the location of the city. Some theories say that it was located in the Mediterranean. Some say that it was off the coast of Spain. Some even say that it lies under what we know today as Antarctica. Some say that it lies somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. Several places like Azores were believed to be the location of Atlantis for many years. Others say that it is present somewhere between Spain and Morocco, in a region called Cadiz. Actually, there is not a single place on earth where Atlantis has not been believed to be located.

The truth is, we do not even know if the city of Atlantis existed for real or if it is just a story. It is one of the greatest mysteries at sea.

The theory of continental drift that started coming to the public in the 1960s also made the chances of the existence of a lost continent geographically bleak.

Still, many people believe in the legend even today.

3. How big was Atlantis?

As one of the biggest mysteries at sea, Atlantis has attained the curiosity of people all over the world. As stated before, the only source of information that we have about Atlantis is whatever Plato had written. Hence, some of the questions that people had have been answered, and some have not. For example, we know how the city of Atlantis came to human knowledge, but we do not know its exact location or size.

According to what Plato wrote thousands of years ago, Atlantis was an island that was larger than Libya and Asia combined. Travelers at that time could get to other islands by crossing Atlantis.

If we consider today’s geography, it is unlikely that Atlantis could be bigger than today’s Libya and Asia together. Many people who believe Atlantis lies somewhere in the Mediterranean Sea say that the island of Atlantis is as big as Crete which is the largest island of Greece.

Atlantis is quite often described as a giant city, but the size is not specified correctly. According to some, Atlantis is as large as Eurasia.

Again, we do not know if the city of Atlantis actually existed and so we cannot determine if size. All our information about it comes from mere theories and assumptions.

4. How was Atlantis Built?

According to the legend, Poseidon, the god of the sea, storms, and earthquakes built the city of Atlantis. This was because he fell in love with a woman named Cleito who was a mortal that is, a human. The city was made on the top of a hill on an island on the sea. The island was completely isolated. Poseidon did so for Cleito’s safety.

It is believed that before Poseidon built the city of Atlantis, he traveled the whole world to find the biggest island ever. When he saw an island, which was the biggest of all (Atlantis), he discovered that the people living on the island were more beautiful and intelligent than the people in the rest of the world. It was on Atlantis that he met and fell in love with Cleito. Cleito later became his wife.

5. The Palace of Captivity

The city of Atlantis was built by Poseidon for Cleito, a human that he had fallen in love with and later married. The city was surrounded by many rings of water as well as land. It is believed that there were five rings of water. Five tunnels connected the water to the land. There was also a huge canal that connected the rings of water to the ocean. These tunnels were so large that they could easily accommodate ships. Every route to the city was guarded. There were gates and towers built to guard the city of Atlantis.

The rings of water were surrounded by tall walls. The walls were built using rocks of red, white, and black. They were also decorated with precious metals and stones.

There was a tall hill called the Hill of Cleito. It is believed that Poseidon captivated his wife, Cleito, on the hill which was highly guarded and surrounded by tall pillars and huge moats. He did so because he did not trust Cleito’s loyalty to him.

6. The Statue of Poseidon

Poseidon – the god of the sea, storms, and earthquakes built the city of Atlantis.

As stated before, Poseidon built the city of Atlantis for a human that he fell in love with and later married. Poseidon and Cleito had five pairs of sons together. Of the ten sons of Poseidon and Cleito, the eldest one was named Atlas. Atlas later went on to become the first ruler of the city of Atlantis.

Legends said that a temple and a colossal statue of Poseidon were built in the city. The statue was completely built-in gold. It showed Poseidon riding a chariot that was being carried by winged horses.

The temple had spirals going as high as the clouds, and the statue was placed at the top of it.

This showed the wealth and glory of the city of Atlantis that may have once existed in reality. The same has been depicted in many books and movies.

7. The Glory of Atlantis

Géza Maróti’s Atlantis City

The city of Atlantis that Poseidon built for his wife was one of its kind. It had a massive statue of Poseidon made of pure gold which demonstrated the wealth that existed in the city.

Half-god and half-human beings inhabited the city. Atlantis was extremely fertile and beautiful. It is believed that it was a self-sufficient city. People reared animals and cultivated their food. Farmers grew crops in the fertile plains of the beautiful city. There also existed an irrigation system that was quite advanced and ahead of its time. It was also very well maintained.

The architecture in the city was exemplary. Beautiful buildings and other architecture were built using black and red stones and even precious stones and metals.

They had access to the rarest of metals and alloys such as brass. They also used crystals extensively for various purposes like experiments or even just for leisure.

It was indeed an architectural and legendary wonder which is rightly described as a utopian world in many myths.

8. Beliefs about Atlantis

Was Atlantis Built By Aliens?

The legend of Atlantis became so popular that people carried out excursions to find it. It was never really discovered, but many people still believe that it does exist despite geographical theories suggesting otherwise. A researcher named Edgar Caycehead has something very different to say about this. He said that the lost city would rise once again just like the sunrise up. He said that it would rise in the form of new land. He also believes that the souls of the people who once lived in Atlantis would bring in a new era of enlightenment for human consciousness.

Some stories suggest that the people who lived in Atlantis had extra-terrestrial origins and that they came to the earth from the Lyrian star system. They came to the earth about fifty thousand years ago, and they were much taller and fairer than the original inhabitants of the Earth. They could live for as long as 800 years. In simple words, there was a much stronger and longer-lasting form of the human race.

Some people also say that the Lost City of Atlantis existed on Mars. It may have also been a colony of an alien civilization. The people of Atlantis had exceptional powers and abilities. For example, they could control the weather, modify volcanic eruptions, and could also channel energy from time and space. This could, however, be a myth to explain the lavishness and glorious lifestyle of the people living in Atlantis.

Over the years, historians and archaeologists have given many theories regarding the lost city, but we do not have any evidence to confirm any of these theories.

Many authors have tried to explain their views about Atlantis in their books. They have also been many films that were based on the lost city of Atlantis and what may have happened to it that it sank or rather disappeared. The most popular among these theories is that a natural disaster hit the city like a tsunami, a volcanic eruption, or an earthquake.

9. Was Atlantis Real?

Plato was known for writing things that were realistic and practical. Hence, when he wrote about the lost city of Atlantis people believed that this was true as well.

Some people claim that they have an explanation for this legend, but none of these explanations has been proved or accepted yet. An explorer once claimed that a massive volcanic eruption that took place in the past on the island of Santorini, Greece what quite similar to the one mentioned in the legend. He also said that he had studied about an ancient society living on that island which was very advanced and ahead of its time. This was quite similar to the story of Atlantis.

Another explorer confirmed that an island or rather a continent once existed but later disappeared in the exact location that Plato gave as the location of Atlantis.

Several researchers like these claim that Atlantis was indeed a real city.

10. What may have happened to Atlantis?

Many theories exist that try to explain how Atlantis came into being and where it could be located.

Similarly, there are a lot of theories that try to explain what may have happened to Atlantis if it existed.

Some theories say that Atlantis what hit by a natural disaster like an earthquake, a tsunami or a volcanic eruption which resulted in the city sinking under the sea.

Some theories also say that the people living in Atlantis were highly advanced and lived in a utopian civilization, but they soon became greedy and lost common human values. As a result, the gods became angry and punished the people of Atlantis by sending “one terrible night of fire and earthquakes” over the city and eventually destroying it completely.

Despite all this, we know almost nothing about the existence of this legendary city, where it was or is located, how it was destroyed, why it was destroyed and if it existed for real. The lost city of Atlantis will always remain a mystery.


Many want to stop emerald hunt

Charles Burgess, director of Mineria Texas Colombia, a U.S. emerald mining company in Colombia Photo Gallery

MUZO, Colombia — The chopper touched down on the hillside helipad and Charles Burgess, a cigar-chomping former U.S. government employee, stepped out to survey the full sweep of his Andean domain.

Since before the conquistadors, men have dug for emeralds in the soil of this steep-walled jungle valley. The gemstone bounty found here fueled the empire of Victor Carranza, the feared billionaire “emerald czar” who vanquished his rivals in bloody battles that left some 6,000 dead. Now all that Burgess could see — from the green peaks where the vultures circled to the valley floor where grimy campesinos shoveled dirt in the black river — belongs to his American mining company, which has taken control of the world’s largest and most valuable emerald mine.

“Beautiful, isn’t it?” Burgess said.

By purchasing Carranza’s share of the mine two years ago, the Houston-based company, Mineria Texas Colombia, known as MTC, is now the only foreign mining company in the treacherous world of Colombia’s emerald trade — once responsible for about two-thirds of the world supply. As the Americans try to reverse declining gemstone production, they also intend to revamp a feudal system of peasants and patrons by paying salaries and benefits and using modern machinery. In that way, the company’s goals mirror those of the country, whose half-century conflict with leftist rebels is nearing a negotiated peace.

But as MTC has bucked local customs, and without Carranza to protect them, some residents and rivals have begun to revolt. On two occasions, armed villagers have seized the company’s mine shafts. Riot police and soldiers fought to control the crowds, but four people have died in the disturbances. Burgess has received threats that his enemies will seize his barbed-wire encampment, blow it up and make off with the emerald vault.

“It’s tough being the only foreigner out here,” he said.

As the helicopter flies, Muzo is a short 60-mile hop north of Bogota, but by road it seems to lead back in time, a seven-hour bumping journey along cliffside switchbacks into a lost green world. The region is rich in coal and iron, but it is world famous for its emeralds, considered the highest quality on Earth. From open pits and dank shafts, miners have pulled out stones so precious that they have names, such as Fura, at 15,000 carats one of the world’s biggest, named for a mythical unfaithful king whose wife’s tears turned to emeralds. A smaller but brighter gem named after the wife, Tena, is one of the most valuable and was once owned by the Russian empress Catherine the Great.

Around Muzo, people speak of the stones in superstitious ways.

“An emerald is an enigma. She’s a very jealous rock,” said Efrain Sanchez, a 63-year-old miner who has been searching for them for four decades. “To find her, you have to have enormous faith.”

In Colombia’s recent history, Carranza was the leader of the faithful. A child miner from an impoverished family, he rose to control nearly half of Colombia’s emerald business and become one of its largest landowners and wealthiest men. Carranza fought off Medellin drug traffickers who wanted to use the emerald mines to launder drug profits and used his private army of some 2,000 people to attack leftist guerrillas. He survived at least two assassination attempts as he consolidated power.

During the bloodiest years of the 1980s, known as the “Green War,” feuds between families grew into wars between villages. Accusations of killings and kidnappings mounted, as well as suspicions that Carranza was running his own drug operation. State Department cables and reports referred to him as a “big-time narco” who was “involved in illegal financial activity.” Arrested in 1998 for forming right-wing death squads, Carranza spent three years in jail, but the charges were eventually dropped and he was freed.

“You couldn’t stand in this spot during the war,” said Sanchez, as he shoveled in the riverbed under the MTC mine. “I carried two pistols in my belt. Everywhere there were drug traffickers, spies for the army. They’d kill anyone just on suspicion. It was everyone against everyone.”

In that environment, Carranza was both protector and frightening overlord. His hilltop estate, across the valley from MTC’s headquarters, has tennis courts, a Turkish bath and a giant emerald safe. He had many enemies — his cook would test his favorite breakfast rib soup for poison — but even more supplicants. Next to his helipad was a low stone bench known as the “Wall of Laments,” where he would sit to hear the entreaties of his subjects.

“He was the irreplaceable man,” said Wilson Murcia, a mining engineer who worked for Carranza. “When he was alive, you wouldn’t have the type of problems like you have today in the region. Who could say no to Victor Carranza?”

Modernizing the operation

“I knew Carranza quite well,” Burgess said from the back seat of his McDonnell Douglas helicopter, flying toward the mine.

Burgess had spent his career in U.S. embassies in Latin America in the 1980s and 󈨞s, with stints in Mexico and Colombia as well as at the U.S. interests section in Cuba, before retiring in 2009. The archbishop who officiated at his wedding to a Colombian woman happened to be the same one who negotiated the 1990 peace agreement that ended Carranza’s Green War and introduced him to people in the emerald business. By the time Burgess met him, Carranza was worried about flagging emerald production. With little investment and surface emeralds getting harder to find, Colombia’s production had dropped from a world-leading 9 million carats in 2004 to 2.6 million a decade later, losing ground to Zambia and Brazil. Carranza was looking for foreign investment to modernize the industry.

“He realized the old way of doing things had to change,” Burgess said.

Burgess had no mining experience. But he passed Carranza’s message on to private-equity people he knew “and then found myself, much to my surprise, helping to set up and run an emerald-mining company.” Burgess declined to name the owners or investors behind MTC, besides saying some of them were Americans. In 2009, the company started operating Carranza’s Muzo mine.

Since then, the company has sought to graft a modern corporate approach onto an outlaw industry. Miners used to work for food and whatever emeralds they could steal, but the company, which has become the state’s second-largest employer, pays its roughly 600 mine workers at least $420 a month, about twice the national minimum wage, plus health insurance and other benefits. Industrial machinery is replacing picks and shovels. The company is digging a ramp that, when finished, will spiral into the mountain for nearly two miles, down to a depth of 1,300 feet, big enough that emeralds can be driven out by four-wheelers rather than loaded into cumbersome handcarts, as in the older shafts. And in an industry where pocketing a few stones was customary, the Americans have brought stricter vigilance: Behind miners operating hydraulic jackhammers, another employee films the work to prevent theft.

“We are the pioneers in changing this and we’re pretty proud of it,” Burgess said. “We’re opening up the whole region to the outside world.”

MTC has won praise from some inside and outside the industry for its reforms.

The Americans “bring order to the mineral extraction,” said Archbishop Hector Luis Pabon, one of the Catholic Church leaders who worked to bring peace to the region. “They will pay the miners fairly, they will take care of things, and they will educate people so their salaries are not spent only on beer.”

Under the protective shield of Carranza and his security guards, the company faced little resistance. But since 2013, when Carranza died of lung cancer and MTC purchased the mining rights, trouble for the Americans has mounted.

From one side, villagers who mine the area informally feel the company is cutting off access to what has been theirs for generations. In Carranza’s day, the mountains of dirt excavated from the mines would be dumped in the riverbed so people could pick it over for emeralds missed by the company. The practice helped keep the peace among communities who lived in the bleakest poverty, and thousands would line the river banks on dirt dumping days. But residents say MTC filters out more emeralds, leaving them fewer scraps.

“Every day they’re strangling us more,” said Inocencio Nunez, one of a few dozen men shoveling through MTC’s castoff soil on a recent day. “They’re throwing out dirt that has no value. They wash it one, two, three times. There’s a lot for this company and nothing for the people.”

Videos of MTC trucks dumping remnants show a seething crowd of residents jostling to grab a few handfuls to sift through.

Carranza’s old enemies, including henchmen of a former Medellin drug ally of Pablo Escobar, have also taken aim at the Americans.

In September 2013, allegedly incited by these gangsters, more than 2,000 people poured over a hillside, ignoring police, and began digging dozens of tunnels on MTC land. When some of them collapsed, three people were killed and about 10 more injured.

“The other illegal miners just stepped over the dead bodies and went on digging,” Burgess said.

Burgess was sleeping at the mine after midnight on May 13 when gunmen blasted off the steel access doors of a tunnel across the valley and began firing inside at company miners on the night shift.

Forced to flee by police gunfire, the men came back in force the next night. A mob of some 2,500 people, in thrall to rumors of fresh emeralds, crowded the dirt road and forced their way into the tunnel. Burgess said one local gangster, the nephew of an extradited drug trafficker, brought 500 lunches to try to entice villagers to stay and keep digging.

MTC workers were beaten and its ambulance battered by rocks. Riot police sprayed tear gas down the tunnel to disperse the crowd. MTC exploded dynamite to collapse its own tunnel. After the blast, 15 people sneaked in through a side tunnel trying to get at the emeralds.

“The first one in was overcome by the toxic fumes from the explosives and died,” Burgess said. “We had to haul the other 14 out and give them oxygen. After this, the government issued orders to the police and army to immediately end the invasion, and this was done, fortunately, without more violence.”

“The poorer we are here,” said Jose Evelio, who lives near the invaded mine shaft, “the more people will force themselves into the mine.”

Other foreign companies, such as the British mining firm Gemfields, are considering following MTC’s lead and entering the Colombian emerald industry. But the American company’s experience has shown that poverty and organized crime are still daunting obstacles in this jungle treasure hunt.

“How could people be happy?” one Muzo resident asked. “They’re putting tons of emeralds on a helicopter and flying it all away.”


Watch the video: CRETE THE ATLANTIS IRELAND CITY. (January 2022).